In Chapter 1 this is a summary of the methodology and contains a brief outline of three things: All of these elements will be reported in detail in Chapter 3.
In a quantitative study, the instrumentation will be validated in Chapter 3 in detail. In a qualitative study, if it is a researcher-created questionnaire, validating the correctness of the interview protocol is usually accomplished with a pilot study. For either a quantitative or a qualitative study, using an already validated survey instrument is easier to defend and does not require a pilot study; however, Chapter 3 must contain a careful review of the instrument and how it was validated by the creator.
In a qualitative study, which usually involves interviews, the instrumentation is an interview protocol — a pre-determined set of questions that every participant is asked that are based on the primary research questions. In the humanities, a demographic survey should be circulated with most quantitative and qualitative studies to establish the parameters of the participant pool. Demographic surveys are nearly identical in most dissertations. In the sciences, a demographic survey is rarely needed.
The theoretical framework is the foundational theory that is used to provide a perspective upon which the study is based. There are hundreds of theories in the literature. In the sciences, research about new species that may have evolved from older, extinct species would be based on the theory of evolution pioneered by Darwin.
Some departments put the theoretical framework explanation in Chapter 1; some put it in Chapter 2. Assumptions are self-evident truths.
In a qualitative study, it may be assumed that participants be highly qualified in the study is about administrators. It can be assumed that participants will answer truthfully and accurately to the interview questions based on their personal experience, and that participants will respond honestly and to the best of their individual abilities.
Limitations of a study are those things over which the research has no control. Evident limitations are potential weaknesses of a study. Researcher biases and perceptual misrepresentations are potential limitations in a qualitative study; in a quantitative study, a limitation may be the capability of an instrument to accurately record data.
Scope is the extent of the study and contains measurements. In a qualitative study this would include the number of participants, the geographical location, and other pertinent numerical data. In a quantitative study the size of the elements of the experiment are cited. The generalizability of the study may be cited. The word generalizability, which is not in the Word dictionary, means the extent to which the data are applicable in places other than where the study took place, or under what conditions the study took place.
Delimitations are limitations on the research design imposed deliberately by the researcher. Delimitations in a social sciences study would be such things as the specific school district where a study took place, or in a scientific study, the number of repetitions. The definition of terms is written for knowledgeable peers, not people from other disciplines As such, it is not the place to fill pages with definitions that knowledgeable peers would know at a glance.
This post would be helpful while you do your dissertation. Analysis can be done by using various tools and methods. Data analysis helps in deriving the conclusion out of the gathered information.
Data that has been collected can be analyzed by doing various statistical tests. For example researcher has collected the data through observation then organization should select the correlation statistical method. There are various mechanical techniques that can be adopted by an organization. This method helps in quick and easy analysis of the collected data and also provides more accurate data. Interpretations of interviews and case studies: Analysis can be done through the interpretation of the interviews that has been conducted during the data collection.
Interpretation of the case studies is also a method of analyzing the data. This will help in acquiring relevant employees for the organization. In this method, collected data are organized in such a way that it will describe the nature and type of data collected. It will be helpful in making better decisions. And through the diagram it will be easy to understand and analyze the data. All the numerical data that has been collected must be presented in graphical or matrix form so that it will be easy to analyze the data.
Some of the ways are histogram, bar chart etc. All the numerical data are put into graphs or matrix and through this calculation can be done easily Weerahandi, This will further help in forecasting the future requirements and also help in framing the budgets. In this method, average of the entire variable data is taken out.
Moving average method also interpret the longer term trends that will also help in adopting some controlling techniques in advance.
Qualitative Communication Research Methods 3rd ed. An introduction to statistical methods and data analysis 5th ed. Principles of data mining and knowledge discovery. Applied Functional Data Analysis: Exact statistical methods for data analysis. Primary research refers to the collection of data for the first time. This data is collected for some specific purpose. There are several methods that can be used for research like interviews, questionnaire, surveys, observation etc. Primary Research Methods Interviews: It can be used in both quantitative and qualitative research.
Interviews can be telephonic, face to face. It can be formed in structured and unstructured manner Pakroo, Data in primary research can be collected through observing the people while working in an organization.
Researcher can get information by sitting in the market and observe the customers. Observation is useful if consumption of total time and cost is required. Questionnaire is a statement that contains a series of questions that will be asked from respondents. But sometimes respondents do not give correct information. And researcher can also do manipulations in information that is obtained. In this method five to eight members sit together and discuss the problem.
All members give their views related to problem, this help in getting the required data. It is more useful in organization Green, It is the method of collecting information by sending mails of questionnaires to the respondents. It avoids the traveling cost and also consume less time. It is done when new product is launched in the market. Samples of the product are sold in the market to check the response of the customers.
Through feedback researcher can improve the quality of product if required. Researcher can select the methods for primary research on the basis of type of data and information required for the research.
If the researcher need personal information from respondents then interview method will be more suitable. Primary research is suitable where the area of research is small. In this, questionnaire method may also be selected because it covers specific area of respondents such as customers, employees etc. Sampling method is also useful for the small area. Research Methods for Sports Studies 2nd ed.
The objective of the research should be closely related to the research study of your dissertation. The main purpose of the research objective is to focus on research problem , avoid the collection of unnecessary data and provide direction to research study.
Research is related to the aspiration and objectives are related to the battle-plan. Objectives should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely, so that research problem could be explored effectively.
Objective should be clear and well defined. It helps to specify the research problems and provide proper guideline to find the solution of research problem Alexander, Specific objective identify the methods of collecting necessary information related to the research problem. Objectives should be measurable. It improves quality and quantitative of the research study to achieve its goal. The measurable research objectives provide guidelines for the improvement of research design.
It is important element to achieve research objectives. Objectives should also be achievable in the time and it should provide accurate result from the use of sufficient resources in the specific time frame. It is related to effective measure of research problem Atkinson, Achievable objectives ensure that every process of research is finished in accurate time will help to achieve the goals.
Objective should be realistic, so that available resources like as men, money and machines could be used effectively. Objectives are most useful, when they accurately define the problem and take various steps that can be implemented with a specific time period. Objective should be measured and achievable into the time frame. The research takes enough time in finding the solution of research problem.
Research Questions In deciding the research questions the consideration over data availability and information sources should be given.
Research questions identify trends and provide significance of the study. Decision for research questions selection should based on research design, sampling and collection of the data. Data collection method decision is based on investigation for the problem and units of the study and it affects the selection of research questions.
A good research question defines the investigation area, sets boundaries and provides direction in solving the research problem.
Research questions should be appropriate with the topic and should find opportunities and commitments related to the study. Management planning for nature conservation: Developing teams through project-based learning. How to Research 3rd ed. Successful management by motivation. Sampling is a process of collecting data, when the population is large for the study.
Sampling is research processes of selecting a particular group from a population so that researcher studying the sample and collect the information in a particular group. It is less expensive and takes less time. Sampling may be the only practical method of data collection. Different Methods of Sampling There are several ways of taking a sample. Several sampling methods may be divided into two methods as probably methods and non-probability methods.
In probably sampling, every element in the population has a known. The main reason to use to probability sampling methods is to sample economically. There are four types of probability methods. The most basic of the probability sampling methods is the simple random sample. In this method, all participants or elements have an independent chance of being included in the sample.
The most common technique for selecting randomly is the lottery and lucky number technique. In this method, population is divided into subgroups such as gender. Firstly researcher identifies the subgroup or strata on the basic of existing information related to the research. The main reason for taking a stratified sample is to have a more efficient sample that provides accurate information.
This method is a combination of simple random sampling and stratified sampling. It is also known as area sampling. A cluster is a unit that contain a collection of population elements. Cluster sampling selects more than one population element at a time like a street or block of residences. This is useful when the population is spread out geographically.
It is preferable that cluster are of equal size, otherwise each elements will not have an equal chance of being selected. In non-probability method, the probability of any particular member of the population being chosen is unknown.
These types of methods may be based on judgment rather than probability. There are four types of non-probability methods. Accidental or Convenience Sampling: The method of convenience sampling is the unsatisfactory form of non-probability sampling. In this method the selection of respondents or elements by accidental. It may be used when the population is high and researcher wants to collect information quickly and economically Blaikie, A commonly used non-profitable method is quota sampling.
In this method, firstly the population is divided into subgroups like as gender of different age groups. The selection of subgroup depends on the relevance to the research topic. Judgement or Purposive Sampling: In this method, the researcher selects a sample to specific purpose and sample members required some appropriate judgment characteristics.
It is often used to forecast election results. It is also known as network or reputational sampling. In this method, responded is related to each others. This is also be used to locate natural social networks such as friendship networks. Selection of Sampling Methods There are several advantages and disadvantages of each of the sampling methods. Researcher decision is based on specific project or research problem.
Selection of sampling methods is based on the accuracy of the information, cost and time period of the survey. The most common criteria for the selection of sampling methods are: Firstly, researcher identity the objectives of the research study or survey.
Researcher also identify the budget or time period of the survey. They are providing guideline in the collection of data or information.
Then researcher identifies the populations included in the survey. Analyze each of the populations, groups, geographic areas or subgroups separately and compare them. Determining the Sample Size: Then researcher is determined the sample frame, sampling unit or target population. Also determine the various resources in used the collection of information. Juta and Company Ltd. This post would be useful for you to develop an understand how to make a research proposal. Research proposal is an important step before starting any research.
A very critical aspect of research proposal is research objectives, questions and methodology that would be use to achieve research objectives. Research Title The title of this research will be "study the role of human resource management to enhance the productivity of organization" Introduction Human Resource Management HRM includes the process of managing employees at work to achieve organizational goals and objectives.
These goals are achieved by strategic operations with the use of cultural, structural and personal techniques Schuler and Jackson, So, it will help to boost employees as well as organizational growth. Research Question In relation to this research, following will be the research question: To see the relationship between HRM and employees productivity. To evaluate the way of influence people for more productivity at work place.
To identify the role of HRM in the growth of employees as well as organization. This enhancement helps to increase company performance. There are many ways for that such as motivate or train employees to work harder and more flexibly, encouraging the use of initiative, reducing the cost of supervision and other direct costs.
As well as providing the opportunity for individuals to develop and use new knowledge and skill at work Birdi, Wall and Wood, So, the human resource management plays a major part to increase productivity of organization. On other hand Dysvik and Kuvaas argued about influencing employees about productivity. They said training and motivation cannot influence every employee in similar way.
If employees can perceive that they are not being provided with sufficient training opportunities. It might develop higher turnover intentions Dysvik and Kuvaas, So, from this statement it is found that perception of developmental HR practices and turnover intentions are negatively related to each other.
Justification Employees are regarded to be the most valuable assets of a company. So, it is important for the organizations to have effective human resource management to enhance productivity of employees as well of the organization. Research Methodology Secondary source of data collection will be used to gather information regarding the research. Potential Difficulty Every research has some potential difficulties that affect the creditability of the research. The potential difficulty regarding this research is the time constraints and accessibility of the information sources.
Action Plan Action plan determines the activities to be taken for the accomplishment of research. Following action plan would be there with time schedule for this research: Personnel Psychology, 61, p. International Journal of Training and Development, 12 3 , p. Data collection methods play significant role in a research process.
Questionnaire method is a type of primary data collection method. This method is used in surveys. In this, research related question formats are distributed to people or respondents. By this method, researcher is able to collect data from wide geographical area. Questionnaire design is most important part of this method.
Data quality largely depends on the design of questionnaire. An inappropriately designed questionnaire will not help to collect relevant and accurate data for research. If you face problem in designing a questionnaire, it is always advisable to seek dissertation help from your supervisor or some other expert. While designing a questionnaire , the researcher must be cleared about aim and objectives of the research.
By this, researcher can construct brief and satisfactory questionnaire. It also helps in adequate content designing of questions. The questions that can be analyzed to produce useful data should include in the questionnaire Crouch and Housden, It ensures that questions are directly linked to research problem.
The relevancy of data to research problem is necessary for sound decision making. Question should be in easy and understandable language. Technical and jargon words should use, where it is necessary. Questionnaire content should be according to the type of respondents Zikmund and Babin, In addition, question should be clear by meaning, so that every respondent can interpret same meaning.
This helps in interpretation of data. These questions should not be ambiguous as it may produce ambiguous output. Question should be logically sequenced and successive in order. This should start from easy question that able to make base for respondents. Questionnaire length should not be too long otherwise; it will become boring or irritating for respondents.
This can be avoided by making focused and to the point questions. Questions must be framed according to importance and problem of the research. Researcher should not consider the interest of own as well as the respondents in making questionnaire Browne, Type of questions can be used: These questions are easy to ask, answer and to analyze as it gives straight answers. This makes ambiguous to respondents and make question invalid.
This type of question has all possible answers. It is very difficult to design as it not only contains question, but also includes all possible answers. It should be comprehensive as well as cover all possible answer that is why; it is difficult to design but easy to ask. This is most difficult task of this question Crouch and Housden, This is opposite from multi—choice question.
In this, not a single possible answer suggested, so it can be respond in any way by respondents. Through this, respondents are free to express their view. The analysis and interpretation part is very difficult as there is intense variation in responses Brace, Attitude measurement and motivational research involves this question.
For application of this technique, researcher must clear about what is required from them as well as from respondents.
Rating scale measures complex and multi dimension concept that provides better information. Research can be defined as systematic investigation that contributes to knowledge. The dissertation topic should be research-able and exploring to provide researcher the maximum scope to bringing something new into the area of research. This will help researcher to conduct an effective research on the relevant topic.
At the same time, it will also help to find relevant data and information regarding the research. It should also be considered, while selecting a dissertation topic that the research can be conducted in the stipulated time period as well as the available finance. Maximum research papers lack their creditability due to lack of money and time Ogden Availability of finance and time helps researcher in the effective investigation of the research problem.
In addition to this, it also helps the researcher in in-depth analysis of the data and information regarding the research paper. The research topic should be manageable in nature so that it can be effectively handled by the researcher. This also leads many areas to be untouched by the researcher that also affects validity of the research paper. In regard to this, manageable topic will help to explore all the relevant areas of the research to accomplish research successfully.
Try to avoid controversial topics: The researcher should try to avoid selecting controversial topic that will be effective in the further publication of research. Many times, it has been seen that many researches lack their publication due to controversy of the topics Bryant There also be the chances of restricting researcher employment, tenure etc. So, it would better for the research as well researcher to avoid controversial topics to select. This may also restrict to get relevant information regarding the research.
This blogpost by the team of dissertationhelpservice. A literature review is an important part of research that analyzes different literatures in critical manner to answer the research question effectively. It is a secondary source as different literatures such as journals, articles, books, authentic web-sources; case studies are used in literature review for answering research question. It assists to enhance understanding about theories, concepts and models etc. The format of literature review may vary from discipline to discipline and from research to research due to changes in research topic.
The main purpose of literature review is to provide clear understanding about research topic Robert
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Research methodology is a systematic process that help researcher to collect the information and data that is related to the research topic to resolve the research issues. This chapter of dissertation provides the in depth knowledge and understanding about the process to conduct the research study in an effective manner and to achieve research aims and objectives.
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